Silicon metal is produced in a number of complex and highly technical steps, known as the carbothermic reduction of silica, a highly endothermic process (the melting of rock). First, the raw materials [quartz rock (SiO2, sand does not work) and carbon reductants] are placed in an electric arc furnace and heated to 3,000°C. High temperatures are required to produce a reaction where the oxygen is removed, leaving behind the silicon (known as a reduction process). This reaction goes through multiple steps, but is summarized as SiO₂ + 2C => Si + 2CO. This produces metallurgical silicon. The reduced quartz is now 99% silicon in a molten form. The liquid silicon is then tapped (drained) from the bottom of the closed furnace and set on cooling tables till it cools to a solid form. This basic process has not changed for decades. What has changed significantly are the sensors and controls, which alongside evolved metallurgical expertise, precision furnace controls, high quality raw materials, and effective containment of off-gases, continue to improve the products. PacWest’s operations will be the most efficient and environmentally friendly in the world. We are using the most modern, efficient and clean technology supplied by Tenova Inc (an internationally acknowledged expert) with certain proprietary operating techniques and designs, developed by our management team, have been successfully operating plants on five continents for decades.